[变频空调维修]-第12章-跳闸故障-第3节-硅桥击穿,开机空气开关跳闸

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空调培训资料缩略图

第3节 硅桥击穿,开机空气开关跳闸

故障说明

海信KFR-2601GW/BP挂式交流变频空调器上电正常,但开机后空气开关跳闸。

1.开机后空气开关跳闸

如图12-14所示,将电源插头插入电源插座,导风板自动关闭,说明室内机主板5V电压正常,CPU工作后控制导风板自动关闭。使用遥控器开机,导风板自动打开,室内风机开始运行,但室内机主板主控继电器触点吸合向室外机供电时,空气开关立即跳闸保护,说明空调器有短路或漏电故障。

图12-14 遥控开机后空气开关跳闸

图12-14 遥控开机后空气开关跳闸

2.常见故障原因

如图12-15所示,开机后空气开关跳闸保护,主要是向室外机供电时因电流过大而跳闸,常见原因有硅桥短路、滤波电感漏电(绝缘下降)、模块短路、压缩机线圈与外壳短路。

图12-15 跳闸故障常见原因

图12-15 跳闸故障常见原因

3.测量硅桥

如图12-16所示,开机后空气开关跳闸故障首先需要测量硅桥是否击穿。拔下硅桥上面的4根引线,使用万用表二极管挡测量硅桥,红表笔接正极端子,黑表笔接两个交流输入端时,正常/应为正向导通,而实测结果均为3mV。

图12-16 测量硅桥

图12-16 测量硅桥

如图12-17所示,红、黑表笔分别接2个交流输入端子,正常时应为无穷大,而实测结果均为0mV,根据实测结果判断硅桥击穿损坏。

图12-17 测量硅桥

图12-17 测量硅桥

维修措施

如图12-18所示,更换硅桥。空调器通上电源,遥控开机,空气开关不再跳闸保护,压缩机和室外风机均开始运行,制冷正常,故障排除。

图12-18 更换硅桥

图12-18 更换硅桥

总结

①硅桥内部有4个整流二极管,有些品牌型号的变频空调器如只击穿3个,只有1个未损坏,则有可能表现为室外机上电后空气开关不会跳闸保护,但直流300V电压为0V,同时手摸PTC电阻发烫,空气开关断开保护,表现现象和模块P、N端击穿相同。

②也有些品牌型号的变频空调器,如硅桥内部只击穿1个二极管,而另外3个正常,室外机上电时空气开关也会跳闸保护。

③有些品牌型号的变频空调器,如硅桥内部只击穿1个二极管,而另外3个正常,也有可能表现为室外机刚上电时直流300V电压约为直流200V,而后逐渐下降至直流30V左右,同时PTC电阻烫手。

④同样为硅桥击穿短路故障,根据不同品牌型号的空调器、损坏的程度(即内部二极管击穿的数量)、PTC电阻特性、空气开关容量大小,所表现的故障现象也各不相同,在实际维修时应加以判断。但总的来说,硅桥击穿一般表现为上电或开机后空气开关跳闸。


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